Henri Fayol – Principles of General Management – Father of General management.
1. Division Of Work and Specialization
- Work should be divided into small tasks/ jobs each performed by a specialist or trained employee.
- It leads to specialization.
- This results in efficient and effective output.
2. Authority and Responsibility
- Authority is the right to instruct and obtain obedience.
- Responsibility means an obligation to perform his assigned work on time.
Fayol suggested that there needs to be a balance of authority and responsibility.
Discipline is obedience to the rules of the organization and the employment agreement that are necessary for the operation of the organization.
According to Fayol, Discipline requires
- Good superiors at all levels
- Clear and fair agreement
- Judicious application of penalties.
4. Unity Of Command
There should be one boss for every individual employee.
5. Unity Of Direction
- All units in an organization should work toward the same goals through coordinated and focused efforts.
“One head and One plan”
6. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
For the benefit of the organization should work on priority over the interest of anyone individual employee.
7. Remuneration of Employees
Remuneration of employees should be just and equitable so as to give maximum satisfaction to both the employees and the organization.
8. Centralisation and Decentralisation
- The concentration of decision-making authority by top management is called centralization.
- The delegation of authority throughout all the levels of the organization is called decentralization.
9. Scalar Chain
The formal lines of authority from highest to lowest rank are called the Scalar chain.
It is a shorter route that was provided so that communication would not be delayed in an emergency.
- A place for everyone and everyone within an organization.
- People and materials must be in a suitable place at the appropriate time for maximum efficiency.
- The principle emphasizes kindliness and justice in the behavior of the managers to the workers
- There should be no discrimination on account of sex, language, belief, caste, nationality, etc
12. Stability of Personnel
- Once selected employees must remain in the position/job for at least a fixed tenure.
- They should have the stability of tenure.
- They should be given a time to show results.
- This means an eagerness to take action without being asked.
- Taking the first step with self–motivation.
14. Espirit de Corps
- Espirit de corps means unity is strength.
- Manage a team spirit of unity and harmony among the staff should promote.
- Managers should replace’I’with’we are in all of their dialogue with the workers, fostering teamwork.