- It Shows the application of science to management
- It means conducting business activities according to standard tools and methods, and staff trained to increase output, improve quality, and reduce costs and waste.
Principles of Scientific Management
1. Science, Not the Rule of Thumb
- Taylor believed there was only one better method of maximizing efficiency.
- This method can be more developed in scientific research and analysis of each element of a job
2. Harmony, Not Discord
- Taylor emphasizes that there should be complete harmony between management and workers.
- To achieve this, Taylor requires MENTAL Revolution which means a complete change in attitude toward each other.
3. Cooperation, Not Individualism
- Extension of Harmony, not discord
- Management and worker must work in cooperation with each other. Competition should be replaced by cooperation.
- Management should welcome the suggestions of workers and reward them for good suggestions.
- At the same time worker should not go on unnecessary strikes.
- There should be equality of work and responsibility between workers and management.
- There will be an open communication system.
4. Development of Each and Every person to his / her Efficiency and Prosperity
- Each person should be selected scientifically
- The work assigned should suit his / her physical, mental, and intellectual capabilities.
- They should be given the required training to learn the best method.
Techniques of Scientific management
1. Functional Foremanship
- Extension of Division of work.
- It is a technique that aims to improve the quality of supervision on the shop floor by putting a worker under eight specialist foremen.
- Violation of Unity of Command.
2. Standardisation and Simplification of Work
Standardization of work means the process of setting standards for each business activity.
Simplification of work aims at eliminating unnecessary diversity of products.
3. Work Study
- Method Study: Find out the best way of doing the job so as to minimize the cost of production and maximize the quality and satisfaction of the customer.
- Motion Study: It refers to the study of movements like lifting, putting objects, sitting, etc. Undertaken while performing a typical job.
Eliminate unnecessary movement so it takes less time to finish the job efficiently.
- Time study: It determines the standard time required for a well-defined job.
- Fatigue Study: It determines the amount and frequency of break intervals when performing a task.
4. Differential Piece Wage system
- It is a technique that differentiates between efficient and less efficient workers.
- It rewards the efficient and motivates the less efficient to improve their efficiency.